Falange

Falange
   The Falange (literally "phalanx") was founded in 1933 by José Antonio Primo de Rivera as a uniformed organization on the model of the Italian fascists. It began in reaction to the left-leaning policies of the Second Republic, and adopted a strongly nationalist rhetoric, as well as displaying a readiness to engage in street violence against socialists and other radical groupings. In 1934 it merged with an overtly pro-Nazi organization, the Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista (Committees of the National Syndicalist Offensive). In the Civil War, it provided volunteer companies for the Francoist rising. Partly to further the war effort on the Nationalist side by providing a unified command structure, partly to bolster Franco's personal hegemony, the Falange was merged with the Carlists in 1937 to form what became known as the National Movement.
   From this date on, the name "Falange" is used, somewhat confusingly, to designate the new merged organization (usually designated as FET), the original core of the "old" pre-1937 Falange, and the National Movement which became institutionalized as a bureaucratic organization within the post-war Franco state. Though the slogan of the original Falange, España, Una, Grande, Libre (Spain, One, Great and Free), and the symbol of the yoke and arrows, were adopted by the Franco regime, old Falangists soon found themselves marginalized after the Civil War. One of Franco's titles was Jefe Nacional (National Leader) of the Falange, and he frequently wore the uniform when addressing veterans" rallies, but he had little time for the anti-bourgeois populism of the old Falange, nor had he any intention of allowing it to challenge his personal power. His only departures from this policy occurred when he temporarily favoured the Falange in order to check the political influence of the monarchists. Franco's instinctive personal sympathy with some of the nationalistic and authoritarian elements in Falangist rhetoric was far outweighed by his characteristic pragmatism, as José Luis Arrese found to his cost when he tried in 1956 to institutionalize the organization within the structures of the state.
   See also: history; politics
   Further reading
   - Payne, S.G. (1976) Franco's Spain, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul (an excellent brief overview, with a clear treatment of this topic).
   - Preston, P. (1993) Franco, London: Harper Collins (an outstanding biography, which gives a profound insight into every aspect of the Franco period; an exceptionally detailed index makes it easy to follow through particular topics).
   EAMONN RODGERS

Encyclopedia of contemporary Spanish culture. 2013.

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  • falange — f. anat. Cualquiera de los pequeños huesos de forma alargada de los dedos de las manos y los pies, especialmente los proximales. Medical Dictionary. 2011. falange …   Diccionario médico

  • falange — sustantivo femenino 1. Área: anatomía Cada uno de los huesos o segmentos de los dedos: Le han amputado el dedo índice a la altura de la segunda falange. 2. Área: historia Cuerpo de infantería pesada de los antiguos ejércitos griegos. 3 …   Diccionario Salamanca de la Lengua Española

  • falange — (Del lat. phalanx, angis, y este del gr. φάλαγξ). 1. f. Cuerpo de infantería pesada, que formaba la principal fuerza de los ejércitos griegos. 2. Cuerpo de tropas numeroso. 3. Organización política, generalmente de signo autoritario y estructura… …   Diccionario de la lengua española

  • falange — s.f. [dal lat. phalanx angis, gr. phálanks angos ]. 1. (stor.) [ordinamento delle fanterie greche antiche sul campo di battaglia secondo una disposizione frontale, poco profonda e compatta] ▶◀ ‖ schiera. ⇑ esercito, truppa. 2. (fig., non com.)… …   Enciclopedia Italiana

  • Falange — Spanish political party founded 1933 as a fascist movement; see FALANGIST (Cf. Falangist). Related: Falangista …   Etymology dictionary

  • falange — s. f. 1. Corpo de infantaria, na antiga milícia grega. 2.  [Linguagem poética] Qualquer corpo de tropa. 3.  [Figurado] Multidão, legião, bando, partido. 4.  [Anatomia] Cada um dos ossos que formam os dedos das mãos e dos pés. 5.  [Anatomia] Osso… …   Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa

  • Falange — [fə lanj′, fəlänj′] n. [Sp, lit., phalanx < L phalanx, PHALANX] a fascist organization, founded in 1933, that became the only official political party of Spain under Franco …   English World dictionary

  • Falange — This article is about the Spanish political party: For the Lebanese Phalange, see the Kataeb Party. Spanish Phalanx of the Assemblies of the National Syndicalist Offensive Falange Española de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista …   Wikipedia

  • Falange — Fahne der Falange Española Die Falange Española ([fa laŋxe], vom Griechischen φἄλαγξ phálanx „Baumstamm“, „Walze“, „Rolle“, „Schlachtreihe“) war in Spanien eine ultranationalistische, faschistische und antikommunistische …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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